Requiem Mass For Cardinal Cullen. Rome 7th December 1878

According to the Irish Times Weekend Review (September 2011) : ” Cardinal Paul Cullen was the towering figure of modern Irish Catholicism and arguably the most important figure in modern Irish history between the death of Daniel O’Connell and the rise of Charles Stewart Parnell. “ Rev. H. O’Bryen, D.D. is well settled into Roman life, having stopped being a parish priest in Lancashire five years earlier at the age of thirty eight, and moved to Rome. It’s another three years before he becomes a papal chaplain.

 

Sant’Agata dei Goti, Rome.
Requiem Mass In The Irish College, Rome, For The Repose Of The Soul Of The Late Cardinal Cullen.

On Thursday, Nov. 28, all the English and Irish residents in Rome met in the church of St. Agatha, the church of the Irish College, to assist at the Requiem Mass for the repose of the soul of the lamented Paul Cullen, Archbishop of Dublin and Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church. The interior of the ancient Church of St. Agatha was beautifully decorated with black and gold hangings and a magnificent catafalque was erected in the centre of the nave, on the summit of which rested on a cushion the Cardinalitial hat. At either side of the catafalque were arranged seats for those invited to the ceremony, the choir being occupied by the students. Over the outer gates of the Church was affixed the following inscription in large letters :—

Paulo Cullen

Sanctae Ecclesiae Romanae

Presbytero Cardinali tit. S. Petri in Janiculo

Archiepiscopo Dublinensi

Hibernia Primati

Apostolicae Sedis libertatis Adsertori

Ecclesiae Catholicae Magistro Custodi et Vindici

Piis operibus instituendis et amplificandis

Cura, consilio, strenue dum vixit intento

Religionis cultu pietatis amore posteris memorando

Litteris scientiis domi forisque clarissimo

Collegium Hibernorum

Suo olim moderatori solertissimo

Justa funebria.

The Mass was pontificated in presence of the Right Rev. Monsignor Kirby, Domestic Chaplain to His Holiness and Rector of the College, by the Right Rev. Dr. O’Mahony, Bishop of Armidale, the assistant priest being the Very Rev. John Egan, Vice-Rector of the College. The Rev. Thomas Bourke was Deacon and the Rev. E. Mackey, Sub-Deacon, and the Masters of Ceremonies were the Rev. Michael O’Donnell and the Rev. W. Burke. The Mass was by Cacciolini, an ancient and celebrated Roman Master, and was well rendered by the choir of the College, assisted by gentlemen from the Vatican and Lateran choirs. The conductor was Signor Don Fausti, Musical Director to the Irish College. I may add that the church was warmed by a new apparatus recently erected by Monsignor Kirby.

Among those present and occupying seats around the catafalque were the Bishop of Beverley, the Bishop of Liverpool, the Bishop of Rochester, U.S., the Bishop of Portland, U.S., the Archbishop of Seleucia, the Hon. and Right Rev. Edmund Stonor, Domestic Prelate to his Holiness ; Mgr. Angelo Jacobini, Assessor of the Holy Office ; Mgr. Rinaldini, Canon of St. John Lateran ; Mgr. William H. Manning, Mgr. Paolo Fortini, the Very Rev. Dr. Bernard Smith, O.S.B., Professor at the Propaganda; Very Rev. Dr. O’Callaghan, Rector of the English College ; Very Rev. Dr. J. Campbell, Rector of the Scots’ College ; Very Rev. Dr. Hostlot, Rector of the American College, and the Vice-Rector, Rev. — Wall ; Very Rev. Joseph Mulloolly, Prior of St. Clement’s ; Very Rev. Father Kehoe, Prior of Sta. Maria in Posterula ; Rev. Dr. English, College of Noble Ecclesiastics ; Very Rev. Father Dunne, Guardian of S. Isidore’s ; Very Rev. Stanislas White, Secretary to the Abbot of the Cistercian Order in Rome ; Very Rev. Father Douglas and Father H. Morgan, of the Redemptorists; Very Rev. Dr. Quin ; Mgr. Mogliazzi, Chaplain to his Holiness ; Rev. H. O’Bryen, D.D. ; Rev. Father Doyle, Carmelite ; Rev. P. Cuddihy, Milford, Mass., U.S. ; Rev. J. Higgins, Rev. W. F. Higgins, Rev. J. Keane; Messrs. Grace and Maxwell, of the Christian Brothers, &c., &c. The members of the various ecclesiastical colleges in Rome were present, including those of the English, Scots, American, Propaganda, Apollinare, Capronica, and the Dominican, Franciscan, and Augustinian Colleges, the Avvocato Carlo Sagnori, and Professor Borghi, Musical Director at the Propaganda College.

Seats were reserved in the Coretto, for his Eminence Cardinal di Pietro, Dean of the Sacred College ; his Eminence Cardinal Simeoni, Prefect of the Propaganda ; and his Eminence Cardinal de Falloux du Coudray, Titular of St. Agatha’s.

Among those in the body of the church were Miss Sherlock, the Baron Hoffmann, Mrs. Vansittart, the Donna Maria di Braganza ; the Marquis De Stacpoole and his sister ; Mrs. Steele (daughter of Lady Louisa Trench) ; Rev. Thomas Hamilton, R.N., Dr. De la Roche, Count Raymond, Cavaliere Franchi, the Misses Steele, Mrs. W. Maziere Brady, Miss Coles, Commendatore Winchester, Private Chamberlain di Spada e Cappa to Leo XIII. ; Mr. John Grainger, Honorary Chamberlain to Leo XIII. ; Mr. and Mrs. Millen, Mr. Haas, Mr. and Mrs. F. Montague Handley, Miss Gorman, Miss Johns, Miss Whalley, Mr. J. Higgins, Mr. Connelian (Boston Pilot). Mr. Blake (late Chairman of the Fishery Commissioners), Mr. John Hogan (son of the celebrated sculptor), Miss Whelan, Cavaliere Silenzi, &c., &c.

The sermon was preached, after the conclusion of the Mass, by Monsignor Anivitti, Private Chamberlain partecipante to Leo XIII. Monsignor Anivitti is one of the most noted pulpit orators in Rome, and his oration on O’Connell, delivered in the Irish College on the occasion of the O’Connell Centenary, was published both in Italian and English.

Monsignor Anivitti began his discourse with the words : In copulatione sanctorum Patriarchatum admitteris, and these words, which were addressed to the youthful son of the aged Tobias, formed not only the commencement but also served as the key note of the preacher’s eulogy upon Cardinal Cullen, whose supreme merit consisted in being worthy to be reckoned among the Patriarchs of Christianity, that is to say among the men whose services to their holy cause were greatest. Individualising his merit, Paul Cullen was compared to Malachy, the friend of S. Bernard, and to St. Patrick, the first apostle of Ireland, who, in his visions, might have saluted his successor, under whose rule, after the lapse of centuries of misfortune, the ancient faith of Ireland again resumed its brilliant lustre and shone forth in triumph.

The orator then laid down the principle that Christian nations possess an immortal life. He quoted Wisdom (Chapter I.) where it is written that God made the nations of the earth for health, and argued that so long as nations adhere to the true God and to His true Church they carry in their bosoms the principle of their lasting continuance and also of their recovery from their afflictions and evils. This truth was illustrated by the case of Ireland which, after three centuries of persecution and combat with heresy, one might have expected to see crushed for ever. Instead of this, behold two great men are given to her, and that in the same century which for other nations was so unfortunate, and these two are O’Connell the Emancipator, and Paul Cullen, who was, as it were, her Patriarch. Their missions certainly were different. The mission of the one was politico-religious : that of the other was religious and anti-political, for it was carried on in spite of the false politics which opposed its progress. If O’Connell could avail himself of religion to serve his politics, Cullen could not avail himself of politics to serve his proper mission, for he was obliged always to stand on his guard, even when collecting and developing the fruits of the victories of O’Connell, lest he should seem, as is the accusation to-day brought against us, to wish to pursue political, under the pre-text of religious ends. But the particulars of Cullen’s life demonstrate the wisdom and the uncommon virtue with which he addressed himself to his great task which was Catholic and National, and tended to the edification of the Universal Church.’

A rapid sketch was then given of Paul Cullen’s personal history, his birth in Kildare county, his education in Dublin to the age of 16 years, his residence at the Propaganda in Rome, his studies under Perrone, his admission to the priesthood, an d his celebrated public deputation, which to this day is remembered with admiration by Leo XIII., who was himself present at it, being at the time a member of the Roman prelature, of which be was even then a brilliant ornament. Cullen’s career as Vice-Rector and Rector of the Irish College, and as Rector of the Propaganda College, were noticed. He was the honoured and trusted agent of the Irish Bishops, and in this capacity’ acquired an intimate knowledge of all Irish affairs, as well as the confidence and esteem of the Irish Episcopate. While he was Rector in the Propaganda College he displayed consummate prudence in saving the property of the College from spoliation and the students from dispersion by boldly appealing to the United States Minister for protection from the Republicans who then, namely, in 1849, were masters of Rome. In 1850 Cullen was made Archbishop of Armagh, in 1852 Arch-bishop of Dublin, and in 1866 Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church.

Humility and mildness accompanied Cullen in his elevation to his high office, and in his episcopal career he gained to him-self the love of the people of Ireland and the cordial affection of the Irish Bishops. He studied the welfare of the clergy. He reformed some small ritual abuses. He sustained the rights of the Catholics of Ireland to Catholic education, and founded, by means of general collections, the Catholic University, in order to keep Catholic youths from frequenting the famous ” Queen’s Colleges,” where the secular instruction was separated from religious, and rendered in effect “godless.” He appealed to the English Government in behalf of liberty for Catholic teaching. He found time amidst his labours to promote piety and learning, and built no less than 36 churches. Proofs of his zeal remain in the numerous institutions he established, such as Holy Cross College, Clonliffe ; St. Brigid’s Orphanage, St. Vincent de Paul’s Male and Female Orphanages and Convent Refuge, the Deaf and Dumb Institution at Cabra ; the Reading-rooms for the Blind in Marlbro’-street ; the Mater Misericordiae Hospital in Eccles-street; St. Joseph’s Night Refuge, &c., &c. He invited to his diocese the Redemptorists, the Passionists, and the Marists. Thus he displayed the true spirit of the Gospel in endeavouring to secure the spiritual and temporal welfare of his flock by institutions calculated to relieve physical distress and poverty, and to mitigate the evils inevitable to society.

The central motive of all Cardinal Cullen’s apostolic work was in heaven, in the Divine Heart of Jesus, through devotion to which he became the good priest and the good Bishop. He had the happiness to consecrate his entire diocese to the Sacred Heart, as was done also throughout Christendom by other Bishops in 1875. Contemplation and prayer were the means whereby Cullen derived the inspiration from the Sacred Heart and filled his mind with divine consolation and aid. But on earth was his second source of inspiration, and this was in Rome, Christian and Papal. He was emphatically the champion of the Pope and of the Holy See. Witness his Pastorals, which were read throughout the Catholic world, and which breathed the spirit of union with Rome. And how closely he caught the spirit of the Roman Church is proved also by some twenty authentic epistles which he received from the Holy See on various occasions in recognition and confirmation of his holy work. He was distinguished more particularly for his courageous vindication of the temporalities and civil rights of the Holy See. He denounced the sacrilegious spoliation of the Pope and the Roman Church, asserted the claims of the Supreme Pontiff to complete liberty and independence, and endeavoured to repair the losses occasioned by the usurpation of the States of the Church by the Peter’s Pence apostolate. Three persons in all the Catholic world were foremost in this apostolate, and these three were Margotti in Italy, Dupanloup in France, and Cullen in Ireland.

But Cardinal Cullen, who rejoiced in efforts to assist the Holy See in its perils, who was so humble in his loving devotion to the Supreme Head of the Church, was denied the pleasure of beholding even the dawn of happier days or the restoration of independence to the Papacy. H e died without seeing the realisa-tion of his hopes. But he died like a model Bishop and like a Patriarch of the ancient type. He died like a St. John Chrysostom or a St. Martin of Tours, with his eyes fixed on heaven. In harness to the last, working up to the final moment, he calmly, like an ancient saint, expired as it were upon the cross, signing himself with the crucifix and blessing his spiritual children as the Patriarchs blessed their families, on whom the hopes of humanity depended. His funeral pomp was rather a triumph than a ceremony of the dead. One hundred thousand persons of all classes in society moved in orderly procession, which comprised 28 Irish Bishops and Boo priests from various dioceses, the whole cortége appearing more like a scene from the eternal Jerusalem than a mortuary solemnity. It was only grief for his loss that reminded the spectators that they were assisting at a function which was not one of festivity.

Here, in this College, and in this assemblage, his venerated remains are not present, but if they were, exclaimed the orator, turning himself towards the catafalque, who among us would not be glad to kiss his hands, to touch his feet, his lips, or his mantle, in token of love or admiration? And yet he is present with us—spirit to spirit ! He is present in prayer and in affection, present in the esteem entertained for his work, present in his example and in the fruits of his labour, and in his imperishable memory. May God grant that on a future day we may rejoin him in the assembly of the Patriarchs, and that we may be found worthy to share in his celestial reward, as on earth we have been privileged to have had him as our companion and as our guide in apostolic virtues.

Upon the conclusion of this discourse, which occupied over an hour in delivery, his Eminence Cardinal Simeoni, who sat during the sermon on a seat in front of the altar, proceeded to give the solemn absolutions. The voice of his Eminence betrayed the deep emotion which he felt in performing this last function for a brother Cardinal, with whom he had been so long and so affectionately associated.

(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.)       Rome, November 30, 1878.

The above text was found on p.17, 7th December 1878 in “The Tablet: The International Catholic News Weekly.” Reproduced with kind permission of the Publisher. The Tablet can be found at http://www.thetablet.co.uk .

 

Rome 2nd February 1878

1878 was a busy year in Rome. Vittorio Emmanuele II died on the 9th January. The Pope died five days after this was published, on 7 February 1878 at 5:40 pm, of epilepsy, which led to a seizure and a sudden heart attack, while saying the rosary with his staff.  Pius IX was the longest serving Pope ever, and the last pope who held temporal powers, although Lazio, and Rome itself were absorbed into the Kingdom of Italy in 1870. Meanwhile, the still at this point, Rev. Dr Henry O’Bryen seems to be settled in splendidly, having stopped being a parish priest in Lancashire five years earlier at the age of thirty eight, and moved to Rome.  He doesn’t become a papal chaplain until 1881. But he is already preaching at S. Andrea  della Fratte, which he continued to do for the next seventeen years.

Rome from our own correspondent Rome Jan 27th 1878

Reports were current in Rome on Thursday the 24th of  January that Pius IX had been suddenly taken ill and was at the point of death. For these reports there was absolutely no foundation. His Holiness all through the week held his usual audiences lying on the couch in his private library. On Monday he blessed the two lambs whose wool is intended for the palliums. On that day  he received many Cardinals and prelates, and on the following day some laymen of distinction were admitted to special audience in the library. Cardinals Manning and Howard were among the visitors this week to the Vatican. On Thursday a distinguished person, who had an interview with his Holiness for half an hour, found the Pope considerably improved in health and spirits. The wounds in the legs are healing up naturally, new flesh growing in a wonderful manner. The Holy Father was unusually cheerful, and expressed a hope to be able to leave his bed in a month or so when the severe weather shall have disappeared.

GARIBALDI:  It is known that General Garibaldi wrote a letter  of congratulation to King Humbert on his accession to the throne. It was not published, because Garibaldi, at the close of his letter, advised his Majesty to dismiss all his “reprobate Ministers.”

Umberto I

KING HUMBERT I. :  On the 19th of January the new King took the oath to observe the Constitution before the senators and deputies assembled in the Parliament House in Montecitorio. On the same occasion the senators and deputies swore allegiance to the King. The Queen, the young Prince of Naples, and all the Royal visitors and envoys, were present in the diplomatic box, or gallery, where seats were arranged for the ladies. The Archduke Renier, the Prince Imperial of Germany, the heir to the Portuguese throne, and the Queen of Portugal were all close to Queen Margherita. The young Portuguese Prince, a pretty boy of fourteen years, was much admired. But the Prince Imperial of Germany, with his broad shoulders, was the prominent figure, and had the post of honour near the two Queens. The new King made a speech, which was much applauded, but which did not contain a single word in reference to God or the Church, nor did it ask, directly or indirectly, the blessing of Heaven. Perhaps Humbert I., who separates himself by the numeral I. from his ancestor Humbert III., the Blessed, was conscious that any appeal to Divine Providence would be out of place in the declarations of a monarch who succeeds to the usurped patrimony of the Church. King Humbert, rightly or wrongly, is believed to be less religious than his father. Signor Mancini, the present Minister of Grace and Justice, was once his teacher in international and criminal jurisprudence, and from Signor Mancini it is not likely that much reverence for the Catholic religion could be learned by the young Prince. So far as can be inferred from recent events, King Humbert willrely on the army and on the German alliance to support his throne against all Republican attacks. To keep Germany on his side he must obey the behests of Prince Bismarck, and he must adopt a policy of antagonism towards the Holy See more pronounced and severe than that adopted by his father. In this anti-Catholic policy Signor Mancini will be his willing guide.

Cardinal Manning

 

CARDINAL MANNING:  His Eminence Cardinal Manning has lately  occupied much attention on the part of the Italian  press.  Fanjulla devoted to him a long article denouncing him for his want of respect to the memory of Victor Emmanuel, and particularly for refusing a high Mass to be sung for his late Majesty. Of course, it is well known in London that Cardinal Manning granted permission for the High Mass, although he hesitated and required additional in-formation concerning the intentions of the applicants. Other Italian newspapers claim Cardinal Manning as their friend and champion, and gravely assert that his Eminence alone among the Cardinals encourages the Holy Father to condone the loss of the temporal power, and come to terms of amity with the revolution ! He is said also to urge the selection of Malta for the next Conclave, and to have raised the resentment of all the Italian Cardinals against him. In all these statements there is not one syllable of truth.

 

 

OUTRAGES AGAINST THE CLERGY:  In various cities of Italy the revolutionists have  taken the opportunity of the King’s death to insult  the Bishops and clergy who do not at once comply  with the demands of political partisans. For instance, two members of the municipality of Piacenza waited on the Bishop of that city, and asked the use of the Cathedral for a funeral service for the late King. The Bishop replied that he could not himself pontificate, but would grant the use of the cathedral provided the laws of the Church were observed. He suggested the use of the Church of S. Francesco in Piazza, as more central and better adapted for the occasion than the Cathedral. He desired them to report his remarks to the municipal council, and to return the next day to arrange everything. The members of the municipality, however, misrepresented the words of the Bishop as an absolute refusal of the Cathedral, and inserted a statement to that effect in a local journal. The consequence was a riotous assemblage of roughs, who mobbed the Bishop, broke into his residence, and filled the town with tumult. The military had to be called out to quell the disorder. At Viterbo, Bologna, Venice, and other places, the clergy have been insulted and attacked by mobs of revolutionists. At Parma the Bishop was assailed the citizens were compelled to close their shops as a sign of mourning, and a tricolour flag was hoisted over the episcopal residence.

MILAN: At the funeral service in Milan Cathedral, on the 24th, in honour of the late King, the crush was so great that five persons were killed, and many others were injured, and had to be carried to hospitals.

PERE RATISBONNE:  On Sunday, the 20th, the Church of S. Andrea  della Fratte was magnificently decorated with red  satin damask bordered with gold, and an infinity of lights for the anniversary of the miraculous event in the life of Pere Ratisbonne, who, on the 20th of January, 1842, was there converted from Judaism by an apparition of the Blessed Virgin. Masses were said during the morning, and at five p.m. Cardinal Franchi gave solemn Benediction. Padre Giovanni, who possesses perhaps the finest tenor voice at present known, sang; and there was hardly standing room in the church. On Wednesday, the 23rd, the Rev. Dr. O’Bryen preached a sermon on the conversion of Pere Ratisbonne to a crowded audience in the same church. [ Alphonse Ratisbonne who was Jewish, converted to the Church, became a Jesuit, and went on to found the Congrégation de Notre-Dame de Sion, on of whose founding aim was the conversion of the Jews.]

APOTHEOSIS OF VICTOR EMMANUEL:  An amusing cartoon has appeared representing  the late King rising heavily heavenwards—his  well-known features appearing above the white sheet that envelopes his body. In the clouds is seen the Piedmontese Walhalla ” The Superga,” and out of it are issuing the deceased members of the house of Savoy. This cartoon has been considered sufficiently curious for the Bodleian library, to which a copy has been sent.

THE CLERGY HISSED:  It appears, unhappily, certain that the small party of clergy who surrounded the Crucifix in the procession of the King’s funeral were hissed. People who saw the procession at different points all assert the same.

Palazzo del Quirinale

 

OVATION AT THE QUIRINAL:  On the return of the King from the Chambers  on Saturday, the 19th, there was a great burst of  cheering on the part of the crowd assembled in  the Piazza del Quirinale; the King, the Queen, their Royal visitors, and the little Prince of Naples all appeared on the balcony—the Prince Imperial of Germany, taking the little Prince of Naples in his arms, held him up, to the great delight of the crowd, and then kissed him.

 

 

A PROPHECY: An astrologer of the Apennines, named Barbanera, in whom the Romans have great faith, made a lucky guess this year in his prophetic almanack. He says, ” On January 11th a great catafalque will be erected in Rome !” He also says, ” another will be required on February 10th.”  [ I rather like the slightly sneering tone of this, being written before the Pope’s death as obviously ridiculous, and the astrologer being almost spot-on. But given that the Pope was eighty six, it’s not a bad guess.]

THE LATE KING’S DEBTS:  The late King, it is stated, unified his large debts some two years ago, and borrowed of a bank  at Turin 15,000,000 lire, of which 7,000,000 have been paid. King Humbert takes this debt on himself, and will not burden the country with it.

ROYAL ECONOMY:  It would appear that economy is to be studied a little by the new King ; 1,000 horses are to be sold at once out of the Royal stables, and the estate also at Castel Porziano. The Royal stables, built at an enormous cost by the late King, are one of the sights of the city, on account of their vast size and completeness in every respect. It is said that, all told, 2,000 persons are employed in them.

SACRILEGES IN ROME:  During the great concourse of strangers into Rome for the late King’s funeral no less than three churches were broken into, and the tabernacles were robbed of the sacred vessels, the consecrated hosts being strewn about.

FEB. 2, 1878:  The anniversary of the First Communion of the  Holy Father, February 2nd, will be the 75th anniversary of the Holy Father’s first Communion, made at Sinigaglia, his native city. The Cardinal Vicar of Rome invites all the faithful, and especially the young, to make a Communion on that day. There will be a grand function at the Gesù.

MONUMENT TO VICTOR EMMANUEL:   The proposed monument to Victor Emmanuel  has set all the painters, architects, sculptors, and  engineers to work, and many designs are already exhibited ; they all bear evidence of the haste with which they have been drawn, and nothing at all remarkable has been produced. They talk much of a grand façade to Sta Maria degli Angeli ; and that the hemicycle in front should become a colonnade, crowned by the statues of the statesmen and others connected with the unification of Italy, the new street, the Via Nazionale, to be entered under a grand triumphal arch.

THE REQUIEM FOR KING VICTOR EMMANUEL.—On the 9th of February a funeral service will be celebrated in the Pantheon for the repose of the soul of the late King Victor Emmanuel.

The above text was found on p.16, 2nd February 1878, in “The Tablet: The International Catholic News Weekly.” Reproduced with kind permission of the Publisher. The Tablet can be found at http://www.thetablet.co.uk .

Rome – 5th January 1878

1878 was a busy year in Rome. Vittorio Emmanuele II died on the 9th January. A month later the Pope died; Pius IX was the longest serving Pope ever, and the last pope who held temporal powers, though Lazio, and Rome itself were absorbed into the Kingdom of Italy in 1870. Meanwhile  Mgr Henry O’Bryen seems to be settled in splendidly, having stopped being a parish priest in Lancashire five years earlier at the age of thirty eight, and moved to Rome. He’s certainly in grand company at the dinner at the English College, with two Cardinals, and Archbishop Eyre, the first post-Reformation Archbishop of Glasgow, who was also Henry’s sister’s godmother’s nephew. [ His sister Cecilia (1846 -1856) ]

Mgr HH O’Bryen

The following all comes from The Tablet on 5th January.

(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.)
Rome, Dec. 31, 1877.

THE HOLY FATHER:  The health of the Pope improved perceptibly  during last week. On Sunday he was  moved for a few hours to the private library, a room separated from the Pope’s bedroom. only by a passage, which serves as his dining-room. His Holiness does not use the spring couch, or chair, procured from Paris by Cardinal de Falloux, but continues in bed, supported in a sitting posture by a contrivance which enables him to sit up without feeling fatigue. Cardinal Manning attended the audience on Sunday and other days this week. Cardinals Bartolini and Randi have recovered sufficiently to enable them to visit his Holiness, and to be present at the audiences which, since the 23rd, have been daily held in the private library. On Christmas Day the Pope received visits from the Cardinal Vicar, many Cardinals, and from some of the great officers of the Court, including Marquis Serlupi, General Kanzler, &c., &c.

On the 27th, the name day of his Holiness, the audience was attended by Cardinals Manning, Howard, De Pietro, Caterini, Consolini, Giannelli, Sacconi, Pecci, Pacca, Ferrieri, D’Avanzo, Franchi, Guidi, Franzelin, Hohenlohe, Bilio, Bonaparte, and De Falloux, as also by the Senator of Rome, Marchese Cavalletti ; Prince Ruspoli, the Bishop of Clifton, and others.

THE CONSISTORY:  On the 28th a Consistory was held by his Holiness in person. The Consistorial Hall was not used. The Throne Room, the throne being removed, was arranged with chairs for the Cardinals, who assembled at half-past 10 a.m. to the number of thirty-five, or thereabouts. All the Cardinals now in Rome attended, except their Eminences Amat, Asquini, and Brossais Saint Marc, who were unable to be present owing to illness (the Cardinal of Rennes will, it is hoped, be able to attend the next Consistory on Monday, the 31st). Mgrs. Martinucci and Cataldi, the Pontifical Masters of Ceremonies, attended, and the latter read the Acts of Consistory and conducted the ceremonies. At a given signal the Cardinals left the Throne Room and proceeded to the Pope’s private library, where the Consistory proper was held. His Holiness spoke in a clear voice a few words, not a formal allocution, as follows ” Venerable Brothers,—Your presence here to-day in such numbers gives Us an opportunity which We gladly seize to re-turn to you and to each of you Our most sincere thanks for the kind offices you have shown to Us in this time of Our illness. We thank God that We have found you Our most faithful helpers in bearing Our burden of the Apostolic ministry; and your virtue and constant affection have contributed to lessen the bitterness of Our many sufferings. But while We rejoice in your affection and zeal we cannot forget that we need daily more and more your co-operation and that of all Our brethren and of all the faithful, to attain the immediate aid of God for the many pressing necessities of Us and of the Church. Therefore We urgently exhort you, and especially those of you who exercise the episcopal ministry in your respective dioceses, as well as all the pastors who preside over the Lord’s flock throughout the entire Catholic world, to implore the Divine Clemency and cause prayers to be offered to God that he may give • Us, amidst the affliction of Our body, strength of mind to wage vigorously the conflict which has to be endured, to regard mercifully the labours and wrongs of the Church, to forgive Us all Our sins, and for the glory of His Name to grant the gift of good-will and the fruits of that peace which the angelic choirs announced to man-kind at the birth of the Saviour.”

The following appointments to churches were then made:-

  • Archbishopric of Nazianzum, in partibus infidelium, Monsignor Angelo di Pietro, translated from Nissa in partibus. (To be sent as Delegate-Apostolic to the Republics of Paraguay, Chili, and Bolivia, and the Argentine Republic.
  • Archbishopric of Chieti, with Vasto in administration, Mgr. Luigi Ruffo de’ Principi di Scilla, born in Palermo.
  • Bishopric of Fano, Rev. Camillo Santori, Rector and Pro-fessor of Dogmatic Theology in the Roman Pontifical Seminary, Sub-Secretary of Vatican Council, &c.
  • Bishopric of Tricarico, Rev. Camillo Sicilian de Marchesi di Rende, formerly a parish priest in the diocese of Westminster, &c., &c.
  • Bishopric of Nice, Rev. Father Matthew Victor Balain, Oblate of the Congregation of Mary Immaculate, Rector of the Seminary of Frejus, &c., &c.
  • Bishopric of Pella in partibus, Rev. Gustavus Leonard di Battice, President of the Ghent Seminary, &c., &c., deputed co-adjutor, with succession, to the Bishop of Ghent.

His Holiness then created Mgr. Vincenzo Moretti (born in Orvieto November 14, 1815), Archbishop of Ravenna, to be a Cardinal Priest ; and Mgr. Antonio dei Conti Pellegrini (born in Rome August 11, 1812), Clerk of the Apostolical Chamber, to be a Cardinal Deacon. (They receive the titles respectively of Santa Sabina and Santa Maria in Aquiro.)

The pallium was then demanded for two archiepiscopal sees, those of Baltimore, the first see in the United States and of Chieti. Baltimore has the precedence of Chieti, but as Mgr. Ruffo Scilla, the new Archbishop of Chieti, appeared in person, he took precedence in postulating of Dr. D. J. O’Connell, the Procurator of Archbishop James Gibbons, the American Primate.

On Sunday Cardinal Caterini, the Dean of the Cardinal Deacons, in his private chapel in the Palazzo Mattei, imposed the pallium on the shoulders of the new Archbishop of Chieti, and on the shoulders of the Procurator (Dr. D. J. O’Connell) of Archbishop Gibbons, of Baltimore, the oaths of fidelity being first administered to the recipients of the pallium. Mgr. Cataldi officiated as Pontifical Master of Ceremonies.

Triduums have been celebrated in the three great Basilicas and in other churches in Rome, to pray for the complete restoration of the health of the Holy Father.

Dr. Chatard will be appointed Bishop of Richmond, Virginia, at an early meeting of the Propaganda, and will accept that see unless his Holiness should express a desire to retain his services in Rome. If Dr. Chatard becomes Bishop of Richmond, Dr. Hostlot, the present esteemed Vice-Rector, will be made Rector of the North American College in Rome, vice Mgr. Chatard.

 

PROTESTANT CHURCH IN ROME: The Free Italian church on the Piazza Ponte S.  Angelo (which is rarely open) was, however,  lighted up a few evenings ago ; and an Englishman might be seen preaching in English, with an Italian interpreting. In front of the pulpit was a table, with bread and wine on it, for the purpose of celebrating an English Dissenting communion. Every evening the Piazza is filled with the soldiers from the neighbouring barracks, who stand about talking and smoking in a very innocent manner until the “retreat “ at 7 p.m. calls them in. The parody of divine worship going on seemed to afford them much amusement, for they kept passing in and out through the little building, dignified by the name of a church, and wondering what it all meant. Apparently the Catholic religion has little to fear front the very feeble attacks of the Protestant sects. The Waldensian sects advertise a ” Christmas tree “ as one of the attractions of their chapel.

PIAZZA NAVONA: Quite a little fair is going on in the Piazza Navona, where may be purchased very prettily-constructed grottos, and all the figures that adorn a ” Presepio,” or representation of the Nativity. The three Magi, the shepherds, the sheep and cattle, and all the accessories are really very cleverly executed.

THE SECOND CONSISTORY; His Holiness held another Consistory this morning in his private library, sitting, as on the previous occasion, in a bed made for him in Rome under the direction of Doctor Ceccarelli, and gave the hats, with the customary formalities, to Cardinals Regnier, Manning, Brossais Saint Marc, Moretti, and Pellegrini. The Pope’s voice was clear and strong. His Holiness seems to be gathering strength, and bore the fatigue of the ceremonial well. Several noblemen and gentlemen were admitted to this Consistory. Several Bishops were nominated, amongst others Dr. Fitzgerald to the See of Ross, Ireland.

DIOCESE OF WATERFORD.—Monsignor Kirby has presented his Holiness with the sum of £1,700 from the Bishop (Dr. Power), the clergy, and faithful of the Diocese of Waterford and Lismore.

THE ENGLISH COLLEGE.—Dr. O’Callaghan entertained at dinner on the 30th, at the English College, Cardinal Manning, Cardinal Howard, Protector of the College, Archbishop Eyre, the Bishop of Clifton, Monsignor Stonor, Mgr. Cataldi, Monsignor Kirby, Dr. Grant, Dr. Hostlot, Dr. O’Bryen, Mr. Ward, Mr. Winchester, &c., &c.

The above text was found on p.17,5th January 1878, in “The Tablet: The International Catholic News Weekly.” Reproduced with kind permission of the Publisher. The Tablet can be found at http://www.thetablet.co.uk .

 

An English response to the Battle of Mentana 1867

I find the tone in both of these quite extraordinary, but then at the time of the first article, the Church had been a temporal power for almost 1500 years.

The Roman Question.

” The King is not saved by much valour: and the giant will not be saved in the multitude of his power. Vain is the horse for safety?? : but in the abundance of his might he shall not be saved. Behold, the eyes of the Lord are on them that fear him; and on them who hope in his mercy. Psalm xxxii.”

Will you reproach us that, writing from Rome, and in these days, we note the song of the shepherd King? They were not clad in coats of mail, no pennon dangled on their lance, but those youths with the down of manhood hardly on their face wore as true crusaders as ever died in Palestine. They were as modest and as resolute as ever was David when Saul said to him, “Thou art not able to withstand this Philistine nor to fight against him, for thou art but a boy; but he is a warrior from his youth.” And who has wept the death of one of the Zouaves? A tear no doubt has stood in the brother’s eye: the sister and the mother will say he is gone before ; but those tears are the incense of love and not the pining of regret, If the coat of Nelson is preserved at Greenwich,and lights burn at the tomb of Wellington, will you blame us that we hold that plain grey uniform in honour; and if we do not place it in glass cases, that we reverence the names of those who wore it, and hold up our hands at the altar of Christ gladly on their behalf?

Will you tell us that his Church militant upon earth has no country and is a mere myth ? Here at least in Rome you cannot, for we kneel by the sepulchres of his prophets, and the voice of St. Paul answers, ” All who will live piously in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution: but evil men and seducers shall grow worse and worse, erring and driving into error.”

Here you cannot, for the Church had no sooner celebrated the chains of St. Peter than she says Mass in honour of the martyrs of the Maccabees. They were Jews; but they were true to their God. Shall the Church, which has not forgotten them, forget to celebrate her champions now? St. Gregory, of Nanzianzum, says well, ” Though among many they are not held in honour that they did not undertake that contest after Christ, yet are they worthy to be honoured by all, because they showed themselves strong and constant for their country’s laws and institutions.”

To what else have the Romans now been true, and for what else defended their city?  ” And Judas and his brethren saw that evils were multiplied, and that the armies approached to their borders, and they knew the orders the king had given to destroy the people and utterly abolish them ; and they said every man to his neighbour. Let us raise up the low condition of our people, and let us fight for our people and our sanctuary.”   And now the Romans have done it, and you cannot deny that they had a right to do it.

But will you say that the Catholics of every nation who fought by their side were needy adventurers who had no right to be there ?  Yes, they were adventurers; adventurers in the fields of honour and of duty ; adventurers for religion on the walls of the chosen city. For Rome is the city of all Catholics ; there they have a right to their Father’s blessing, and how much more if they died defending him to his prayer for their souls. For these are no common rights, but immeasurably greater than the rights of nations ; and yet it was not until the law of nations was cast to the winds that Catholic Rome vindicated her honour in the courage of her sons.

But still will you say that the French had no right to come? Every man has a right to resist injustice; and it is only a question of prudence if he does not. Were the Catholics of the world to’ wait till Piedmont had done in Rome what. she has done in all her usurpations : stripped the altars, emptied the convents, melted the sacred vessels, cast venerable men into prison, driven out religious women to starve ? The ideas of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth have not yet reduced Romans to that. Why were Frenchmen to wait? You can give no reason except your own wish. And France was more bound to interfere, because by a mistaken policy she had let the mischief loose upon Italy, because no faith had been kept with her, and her honour was at stake. We say nothing of her traditions and her Catholic name.

God knows how much France has suffered. He knows how her faith will be revived. Do we not grieve, then ? Not for the dead, but for the living. They are at peace, and the torment of malice can reach them no more. But Europe is not at peace; and how can it be,? You will say that it is the princes who are to defend the Church if they think it worth defending. But the princes have not defended the Church, and the Church has a right to defend herself. Do you think that be-cause the Catholics of Europe are disunited, because they are peaceable, and weak to resist aggression, that you can ride over them as you please ? They have hearts and hands and swords. In your insane bigotry and injustice will you seek by diplomatic intrigue to do what by the sword you dare not do ? And if you think you could persuade men to please you by making the Sovereign Pontiff a puppet, will you not see on a larger scale what we have just seen on a smaller one ?

You will; for the Pontiff has rights which you do not understand, but which the Church throughout the world understands and cherishes. And if obedience is impaired it still exists, and the Catholic people will hear their pastor again if you compel him to say as he has said now, “Venerable brethren, by this race of abandoned men we are surrounded on every side.” For nothing that you can do will ever destroy the temporal power of the Church ; no art or menaces induce the Pope to remain in Rome in the condition to which you seek to reduce him. If, then, you are not prepared for war, it is your part first to set the example of peace. For it is your continual hounding on of the dogs of Piedmont which has brought about the present crisis. And if you think it pleasant to fiddle while Rome is burning, we do not; and Europe will not submit to your dictation. Lead civilised lives yourselves before you undertake to reform your neighbours.

And if you do not believe in the providence of God, which has given the Church a civil principality, remember that even in this world He seldom suffers flagrant violations of public right to go unpunished. Here in Rome, freed at least for the time from your machinations, we will pray for the conversion of your country, and that the Almighty will cease to visit the sins of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Him.

AN ENGLISH PRIEST,

Rome, Octave of All Saints. [ which would have been the 9th November 1867]

The above text was found on p.7, 23rd November 1867 in “The Tablet: The International Catholic News Weekly.” Reproduced with kind permission of the Publisher. The Tablet can be found at http://www.thetablet.co.uk .

 

And then 100 years later in The Tablet, almost as strong a view

Papal Guards

The year 1967 is not quite so rich in.centenaries as 1966 was, but it has one outstanding one. It is the centenary of the last victory of the Church in arms, in the series which began with the Milvian Bridge, includes Lepanto and Vienna, and had added to, it in 1867 the victory over the Garibaldian invaders of papal Rome at Mentana. The thirty thousand Garibaldians who marched on Rome in three great bands in 1867, faced only by the twelve thousand defenders of the papacy, must have imagined that Rome was well within their grasp. If they suffered a check from the Catholic Zouaves at San Francesco in their opening moves, their overwhelming force brought them eventually to the bridges over the Teverone, a bare three miles from Rome, ten thousand strong against General Kanzler’s papal army of three thousand. This, though it included some of the Pope’s own Romans, counted as its best elements young men, and old men, drawn from every province in Christendom. Collingridge, the heroic young Londoner, and Peter Yong, the virile young Dutchman, who fell together at Monte Libretti; Bach the Bavarian, a leader of Ney’s quality: these were typical of those Catholic volunteers ” prepared, like Jacob, to wrestle with the angel “ in a far more literal sense than most of us. Alas that the final battle was not ornamented by the kilts of the regiment of Glasgow Highlanders that Scotland contributed to the cause! But these, as unpaid as the other volunteers, had less financial capital to keep their unit in being, and disappeared in the ranks of the papal forces, to live on soup and macaroni, deprived of the garb of Old Gaul.

The sudden appearance of Napoleon III’s French-men in support of the “papalisti” ended the Garibaldian hopes, as admirers of Lothair will remember, the new French breechloader ” doing marvels “ and causing that strange cessation in the battle remembered by one volunteer on the papal side. Then the Garibaldians surrendered or fled, and Julian Watts-Russell, little more than a boy, fell in the moment of victory, among his fellows of the papal Zouaves. The House of Savoy, which had eaten up Italy ” like an artichoke,” had to wait three years before Rome, the last leaf, was swallowed, apart from that undigestible morsel of the Vatican; and where is that ancient house today?

The above text was found on p.11, 7th January 1967 in “The Tablet: The International Catholic News Weekly.” Reproduced with kind permission of the Publisher. The Tablet can be found at http://www.thetablet.co.uk .

The Julian Watts-Russell monument, Rome, April 1894

San Tommaso Canterbury, Via di Monserrato, Roma,

I stumbled across this recently, and it is one of those nice curiosities that happen from time to time. The initial interest was sparked by the fact that two of the contributors to the monument are Mgr O’Bryen, and the then Rev. Manuel Bidwell.  Almost thirty years later Manuel, by then the rather grand sounding Bishop of Miletopolis, married the O’Bryen great-grandparents [his first cousin (once removed) and Uncle Henry’s nephew.]

The two churchmen were at either end of their church careers, and at least a generation apart in age.  Henry was fifty nine at the time, having spent almost twenty years as a papal diplomat, and would be dead eighteen months later. Manuel was only twenty two, and had just started studying in Rome at the French Seminary, and the Academy of Noble Ecclesiastics, having already gained a B.Sc. in Paris, and then studied Applied Science, at King’s College, London.  He was ordained in Rome four years later in 1898, where the assistant priest at his first mass was Mgr, and later Cardinal, Merry del Val.

So the initial spark was the curiosity of a great great uncle, and a first cousin three times removed both having been connected together, but the more one looks at the list of donors to the memorial, the grander they become, and the more it shines alight at the still glittering peaks at the top of the church. I’ll come back to that in another post. But for now, a simple explanation of who Julian Watts-Russell was.

He was a Pontifical Zouave, who was killed in the battle of Mentana, Nov. 3, 1867. The Papal Zouaves  were an infantry force formed for the defence of the Papal States in 1860. The battle of Mentana was “the last victory of the Church in arms,”  [ a interesting choice of words from the Tablet in 1967]  three years before the capture of Rome by the Italian army ending eleven hundred years of temporal papal rule. Julian Watts-Russell aged seventeen, was the youngest casualty of the battle,  “one who may be called the last of the English martyrs” [ The Tablet 1894]

THE JULIAN WATTS-RUSSELL MONUMENT.

The monument is now finished, with the  exception of the Mentana medal-cross, and will be placed in the English College Church  during the coming week. By a singular coincidence, Captain Shee has recently come to Rome. He is a hero of Mentana, and received nine wounds in 1870, and is one of those who buried the body of Julian Watts-Russell after his death, and exhumed it when brought to Rome. In connection with present events, it may be well to record the inscription on Julian’s tomb in the Campo Verano :

HEIC AD MARTYRUM CRYPTAS

DORMIT IN PACE

JULIANUS WATTS-RUSSELL MICHAELIS F.

ANGLUS CLARO GENERE

PRO PETRI SEDE STRENUE DIMICANS

IN ACIE AD NOMENTUM OCCUBUIT

III. NON. NOVEMB.   AN. MDCCCLXVII.

AN. N. XVII. MENS. X.

ADOLESCENS CHRISTI MILES

VIVE IN DEO.

The above text was found on p.17, 7th April 1894 in “The Tablet: The International Catholic News Weekly.” Reproduced with kind permission of the Publisher. The Tablet can be found at http://www.thetablet.co.uk .

” The Julian Watts-Russell monument is now completed. The expenses have been defrayed  by the contributions of the following persons,  chiefly members of the English-speaking colony in Rome : His Grace the Archbishop of Trebizond [the Hon. and Rt. Rev. Mgr. Stonor,],  Monsignori Merry del Val, Stanley, Giles, and O’Bryen ; the Very Rev. Joseph Bannin, S.M., the Rev. John L. Prior, D.D. (Vice-Rector of the English College), the Rev. Michael Watts-Russell, C.P. ; the Rev. G. Phillips and the Rev. Dr. Preston, of Ushaw College ; the Rev. C. R. Lindsay, the Rev. Manuel Bidwell, the Rev. Students of the English College, Alderman Sir Stuart Knill, Mr. E. Granville Ward, Miss Watts-Russell, Mr. C. W. Worlledge, Dr. J. J. Eyre, Mr. C. Spedding, Mr. C. Astor Bristead, and Mr. W. Cagger.

The Mentana monument, which has been already described, has been erected upon a base of white Carrara marble and surmounted with a Mentana medal-cross in exact imitation of that which it replaces. The whole has been placed in the Church of St. Thomas, in the corner of the Gospel side of the altar, near the memorial slabs of distinguished modern English Catholics buried in the church. The inscription on the base succinctly recalls the history of the monument:

THIS MONUMENT ERECTED AT MENTANA IN 1868 OUTRAGED AND THROWN DOWN IN 1870 BROUGHT TO THIS CHURCH AND RESTORED IN 1894 COMMEMORATES THE FAITH AND COURAGE OF JULIAN WATTS-RUSSELL WHO SHED HIS BLOOD FOR THE HOLY SEE NOVEMBER  3 1867.

The letters of the original inscription, which were badly damaged, have been restored and made legible even from a distance. The restoration of the monument has cost 300 francs, and it is proposed to apply the remainder of the money contributed to restoring his grave.”

The above text was found on p.17, 12th May 1894 in “The Tablet: The International Catholic News Weekly.” Reproduced with kind permission of the Publisher. The Tablet can be found at http://www.thetablet.co.uk .

 

THE JULIAN WATTS-RUSSELL MONUMENT.

The monument is now finished, with the  exception of the Mentana medal-cross, and will be placed in the English College Church  during the coming week. By a singular coincidence, Captain Shee has recently come to Rome. He is a hero of Mentana, and received nine wounds in 1870, and is one of those who buried the body of Julian Watts-Russell after his death, and exhumed it when brought to Rome. In connection with present events, it may be well to record the inscription on Julian’s tomb in the Campo Verano :

HEIC AD MARTYRUM CRYPTAS

DORMIT IN PACE

JULIANUS WATTS-RUSSELL MICHAELIS F.

ANGLUS CLARO GENERE

PRO PETRI SEDE STRENUE DIMICANS

IN ACIE AD NOMENTUM OCCUBUIT

III. NON. NOVEMB.   AN. MDCCCLXVII.

AN. N. XVII. MENS. X.

ADOLESCENS CHRISTI MILES

VIVE IN DEO.

The above text was found on p.17, 7th April 1894 in “The Tablet: The International Catholic News Weekly.” Reproduced with kind permission of the Publisher. The Tablet can be found at http://www.thetablet.co.uk .

St Patrick’s Day in Rome 1878

CARDINAL MANNING AT ST. ISIDORE S.

The Church of St. Isidore’s, Rome, was thronged to excess on the 17th of March, St.  Patrick’s Day, with the English and Irish residents in Rome, Protestant as well as Catholic, who flocked to hear a sermon preached by his Eminence Cardinal Manning. Long before the hour fixed for divine service every seat in the church was occupied. A Capuchin prelate had promised to pontificate, but owing to some accident was unable to attend, and there was no High Mass. Shortly after I I a.m.

 

 

 

Cardinal Manning

Cardinal Manning entered the pulpit and gave out as his text, St. James ii., 12, ” So speak ye, and so do, as being to be judged by the law of liberty.” His Eminence gave an interesting sketch of the life and labours of the Apostle of Ireland, and enlarged upon the firmness and constancy of the Irish people, who for fourteen hundred years had kept the faith, in spite of fierce persecution, and had carried the Catholic religion into America, Australia, and other distant dependencies of the English Crown. The Cardinal’s sermon was listened to with breathless attention, and at its close a collection was made for the benefit of the Irish Franciscan Fathers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cardinals MacCloskey, Manning, and Howard were subsequently entertained at dinner by the Very Rev. the Guardian of St. Isidore’s. Among the other guests of the Franciscans on this occasion were Archbishop Eyre, Dr. Strain, Archbishop elect of St. Andrew’s ; the Bishop of Clifton ; Mgrs. Carli, Cataldi, Agnozzi, and Rinaldini ; the Prior of St. Clement, the Very Rev. Dr. Hostlot ; Canon Walsh, Rev. Dr. O’Bryen, D. Shine Lalor, Esq., the Prior of Sta. Maria in Posterula, the Very Rev. Dr. Doyle, Captain Balfour, Mr. Shakspeare Wood; Rev. I. Healy, Dr. De la Roche, Mr. Lane Connolly, and Mr. Winchester.

The above text was found on p.15, 23rd March 1878, in “The Tablet: The International Catholic News Weekly.” Reproduced with kind permission of the Publisher. The Tablet can be found at http://www.thetablet.co.uk .

The Papal Delegation to Quebec 1886

The following text was taken from ” Le Premier Cardinal Canadien:  Souvenir De 1886, Publié Avec Autorisation, Québec, Typographie D’Aug. Cote Et Cie.”. I have translated it from the French, so there may be some mistakes, particularly where some of the speeches were given in English, translated for the book, and now translated back into English again, but it does give an idea of quite how grand a churchman Uncle Henry was.

The Ablegate charged by the Holy See to bring Cardinal Taschereau, the red berretta, the cardinalate insignia, was His Excellency Mgr. Henry O’Bryen, who is of Irish origin.

Mgr. O’Bryen was not on his first journey in America. In 1877, he had travelled through Quebec; and, for the last few days, was the guest of His Excellency Monsignor Gonroy, at the time, the Delegate of the Holy See in Canada.

Mgr the Ablegate is tall, handsome, noble looking, with a good figure; he seems to be about fifty years old.

Notre Dame de Lévis, Quebec

On the 8th of July, he embarked at Liverpool, aboard the Polynesian, on the Allan line, His Excellency arrived at Lévis on Sunday the 18th at six o’clock in the morning.  As the ship passed Pointe-au-Père, she was greeted by a fourteen gun salute. At the landing-place at Lévis, Mgr. O’Bryen was received by the Grand Vicar Legaré and M. G.-A. Marois,the Cardinal’s secretary, and immediately taken to the Church of Notre-Dame de Lévis, where he said Mass at 7a.m. His Excellency then breakfasted at the presbytery, where he was hosted by Father Gauvreau until the departure time for the journey and solemn arrival at Quebec.

A few minutes before one o’clock in the afternoon, Mgr O’Bryen left the presbytery of Lévis, accompanied by M. Le Grand Vicar Legaré, Father Gauvreau, and several other members of the clergy, they made their way towards the port, escorted by a large crowd of citizens, coming from all parts of the town, who demonstrated their respect for the representative of His Holiness by their presence. A boat had been specially placed at the disposal of the Ablegate and his party, of which the band of St. Joseph de Lévis was also part.

At Quebec, the quays were crowded; particularly notable were the Rev. M. Méthot, Rector of the Université Laval, the Redemptoris Fathers, and  numerous clergy, His Honor the Mayor Langelier with the Aldermen and Councillors, Mr Carbray, President of the National Irish Society with a large number of members of the Society, Mr. H.J.-J.B. Chouinard, President of the Company of Saint John the Baptist.

His Excellency got into a carriage drawn by four horses; it was followed by Major Vicar Legaré, His Honor the Mayor and Mr. Carbray. The procession included a very large number of carriages; the clergy followed his Excellency; they were followed by the members of the City Council and the notables of Quebec. Members of the National Irish Society, with their rich banners, preceded by the band of St-Joseph de Lévis, marching in front of the carriage of the Ablegate. Along the way, thousands of citizens were massed on either side of the street, but especially on the slope of the Côté La Montagne and cheered the representative of the Holy Father. On the outskirts of the Cardinal’s Palace, there were between seven and eight thousand persons. All the heads were uncovered as His Excellency passed by.

 

On his arrival at the Cardinal’s Palace, Mgr.O’Bryen went to his Eminence, who was awaiting him, surrounded by numerous clergy and many civil dignitaries, and handed him his credentials.

His Eminence thanked him and added:

“The persons whom you see gathered in this hall have come to pay tribute to your Excellency, and to prove again their attachment to the Sovereign Pontiff. In the decree which calls me Cardinal, His Holiness Leo XIII says that he has raised me to this high dignity, to reward Canada for the devotion which she has never ceased to show towards the Holy See. When you return to Rome, Excellency, you will be able to repeat to His Holiness what you have seen, and you will be able to assure him that zeal for the glory of God and attachment to his Church will not be slowed down among the inhabitants of this country. “

Having thus informed His Eminence of the object of his mission, Mgr. O’Bryen visited His Excellency Monsignor Lynch, Archbishop of Toronto, to inform him that he was the bearer of the official documents under which his authority was delegated by the Holy See to transmit to His Eminence the cardinal’s berretta

Archbishop Lynch of Toronto

Outside Rome, the solemn transmission of the red berretta is usually performed by the Head of State, when the latter is Catholic. As the Governor-General, who may be regarded as the head of the State in the Dominion of Canada, does not belong to the Catholic Church, the Holy See has delegated Venerable Archbishop of Toronto, Province of Ontario, Monsignor John Lynch to represent it in this august ceremony.

Bishop Lynch had arrived in Quebec City on the previous Saturday, July 17, and was the guest of His Eminence. His Grace was not unacquainted with Mgr Taschereau: it was he who, fifteen years ago, had ordained the future Cardinal a bishop. The honour which the Holy See had delegated to the Archbishop of Toronto this year was a magnificent crowning of his first mission; It was a further recognition of the Church in Quebec by the illustrious Metropolitan of the Church in Ontario.  The Irish population of Quebec had reason to be proud of the choice made by His Holiness of two sons of Ireland to represent Him in this great circumstance. So, the day after the arrival of Mgr O’Bryen, the National Irish Association of Quebec City, was able to go to His Excellency to welcome him to the Irish community in Canada. The reception took place, at 4 o’clock in the afternoon, on the 19th of July, in the great salon of the Cardinal’s palace. Mr. Carbray, President of the Irish National Association, accompanied by a large delegation, read to His Excellency the following address, which had been magnificently illuminated.

Address Of The Irish Association To Mgr O’Bryen

To His Excellency the Most Reverend Monsignor Henry O’Bryen, Ablegate of His Holiness.

Monsignor,

We are certain that you are not surprised to find many of your compatriots on the shores of the New World. We are scattered all over the civilized world, and even in places where civilization has not yet penetrated; for where are the Irish not found?

Our fathers, or we ourselves, have been obliged to seek refuge and livelihood abroad, far from the much loved island of our ancestors, but towards which our eyes turn with sadness and love, as the Jewish people do for their beloved land of Israel.

Here, however, thank God! We did not find ourselves strangers. We were received as brothers by the good people of Canada, the children of that great branch of the Celtic race, the old Gaul. It would be too lengthy to relate the beginnings and growth of our people in this country; Suffice it to say that we are here in the hundreds of thousands, forming an important part of the population of this happy and prosperous country of Canada.

It is not in this city, Monsignor, that you will find hundreds of thousands of us, for it could not contain us all; but we count in tens of thousands, Irish descendants of Irishmen, who offer a most cordial welcome “Céad míle fáilte” to the illustrious member of our race who comes in the midst of us as the representative of the great, the immortal Leo XII, Our Holy Father and Vicar of Jesus Christ on earth, to our pious, zealous and holy archbishop, to confer upon His Eminence the symbols which create him a Cardinal-Prince of the Holy Roman Church,

Monsignor. Even though you are far from Rome,your adopted city, we do not ignore the greatness of your character, your love and loyalty to Ireland, nor the noble zeal that you have always deployed for her interests.

Welcome, Monsignor! May your stay in the midst of us be happy and joyful, and when you return to Rome, please tell Our Holy Father that you have found in this country a large population of Irishmen, from whom His Holiness has always had allegiance, and who, thank God, do not derogate from the loyalty and the faith of their fathers.

Félix Carbray,

President of the Irish Association.

His Excellency replied in eloquent terms. He alluded to the dispersion of the Irish race, which the Almighty obviously uses to spread the Catholic faith. Mgr. O’Bryen spoke in warm terms of the great progress of the Church in America and Australia, due in large part to the Irish race and its fidelity to the Church. He thanked his compatriots for the large part they had taken in the great ovation of which he had been the object at his arrival, and that he would remember all his life. He alluded to the zeal and piety of His Eminence Cardinal Taschereau, and to the high esteem which he enjoyed in Rome, and spoke highly of the people of Canada and his clergy. Finally, His Excellency expressed the hope that better days would shine for Ireland, whose autonomy cannot fail to be recognized in the very near future.

It goes without saying that Monsignor O’Bryen, throughout his stay, was the object of brilliant receptions, testimonies of veneration for his character as papal Ablegate, and statements of high esteem for his merit by civilian dignitaries, religious authorities and various communities in the city. These demonstrations, the splendor of which was somewhat lost amidst the splendours of the cardinal’s festivals, were none the less real, and could only confirm in the mind of the illustrious Delegate of the Holy See the truth of the words addressed to him by his Eminence at his first interview.

Rome – June 1886, Uncle Henry is about to go to Canada…

Uncle Henry is about to go to Canada…..

19th May 1886 –  CONSISTORY.

consistory2The Osservatore Romano of Thursday last  announced the Secret Consistory [restricted only to Cardinals] as to take place Monday, June 7th, for the creation of six new members of the Sacred College, whose names have been already given. Several Cardinals will, it is whispered, be reserved “in etto”. On Wednesday, 19th inst., the Holy Father named the Noble Guards who are to be Messengers Extraordinary to convey to the five foreign Archbishops the formal announcement of their promotion to the sacred purple. Count Naselli goes to Rheims, Count Salimei to Rennes, Count Folicaldi to Sens, Count Muccioli to Baltimore, and Count Gazzoli to Quebec. Yesterday the five Guards above named were admitted to private audience by the Pope to return thanks for the honour accorded them.

Cardinal Biretta sikThe choice of the Ablegates to bear the Berretta to the new Cardinals has fallen on Mgr. Straniero for Baltimore, Mgr. Henry O’Bryen for Quebec, and Monsignori Vico, Misciatelli and Grassi for the three French Cardinals. The name of Father Mazzella, S.J., Prefect of Studies in the Gregorian University is now added to the list of future Princes of the Church. The Ablegates and the Noble Guards start on their respective missions immediately on the close of the Secret Consistory. Thursday, June 10th, is the day fixed for the Public Consistory, wherein the cardinalitial hat will be conferred on Mgr. Theodoli, and on the Cardinals Patriarch of Lisbon, and the Archbishops of Vienna and of Valencia, created in 1884. The Archbishop of Seville, likewise of the same promotion, is prevented from private reasons from coming to Rome for this Consistory. Count Carlo Gazzoli, who is to be the bearer of the hat to Mgr. Taschereau, belongs to a very ancient noble family. On the mother’s side he is descended from the Princes’ Simoneth, an old baronial family of the Marche ; and from the Princes Spada of Rome on the father’s side. He is a brother of Mgr. Gazzoli, Canon of St. Peter.

The above text was found on p.29, 22nd May 1886  in “The Tablet: The International Catholic News Weekly.” Reproduced with kind permission of the Publisher. The Tablet can be found at http://www.thetablet.co.uk .

Monday, June 7th.

This morning, as announced, his Holiness held a Secret Consistory in the Vatican Palace, in which, after the Cardinal Secretary of State, as Procurator for Cardinal Agostini, Patriarch of Venice, resigning the title of S. Eusebius, had opted for the vacant title of S. Maria della Pace, the Holy Father pronounced a brief allocution [a formal speech giving advice or a warning.] laudatory of the three countries of France, United States, and Canada in relation to the Catholic faith, and personally eulogistic of the two Italian candidates, he created and proclaimed Cardinal Priests of Holy Roman Church the Archbishops of Sens, Rennes, Rheims, Quebec, and Baltimore, U.S.A. ; and Cardinal Deacons Mgr. Augustus Teodoli, and the Rev. Camillus Mazzella, S.J.

He then preconised [approved the appointment of] titulars to the Metropolitan See of Toledo, in Spain, for Cardinal Paya y Rico, translated from that of Compostella ; to the Archiepiscopal See of Sorrento, to fourteen Cathedral Sees, and to two titular Episcopal Churches for the Auxiliaries respectively of the Cardinal Archbishop of Naples, and of the Cardinal Archbishop of Saragozza. After the Consistory the Pope imposed, with the usual formalities, the rochet [a white vestment worn by a  bishop, similar to a surplice] upon the newly preconised Bishops, present in curia, who then paid the customary visits of formality to the Cardinal Secretary of State and to the Vatican Basilica ; the five Noble Guards started on their foreign mission as Extraordinary Couriers ; and the official notice of promotion to the Cardinalate was duly conveyed to the two new members of the Sacred College present in Rome. The Papal Ablegate, Mgr. Straniero, leaves Rome this evening, en route for Baltimore, to convey the berretto to Cardinal Gibbons. Mgr. Henry O’Bryen and the other three Ablegates will depart in a few days for their destinations, to Quebec and to France.

PUBLIC  CONSISTORY.

pope in sala regia
The Pope in the Sala Regia

On Thursday the Pope held a Public Consistory in the Sala Regia of the Vatican Palace, in which he conferred the Cardinalitial Hat upon Cardinal Neto, Patriarch of Lisbon, created and published in the Consistory of March 24th, 1884; upon Cardinals Ganglbauer and Monescillo y Viso, created and published in the Consistory of November loth, 1884, and upon Cardinals Theodoli and Mazzella, created and published in the Consistory of Monday, 7th inst. During the ceremony one of the Consistorial Advocates argued, for the third time, the cause of beatification of the Venerable Servant of God, Sister Gertrude Maria Salandri, of Rome. The promoter of the faith thereupon made the customary protest, to which his Holiness replied : “Ad nostram Sacram Rituum Congregationem quae videat et referat.”  The Holy Father then closed the Public Consistory, and, proceeding to the Hall of the Consistory, held a Secret Consistory, wherein, after closing the mouths of the new Cardinals, he preconised titulars to four metropolitan and sixteen cathedral sees, including that of Mayence for Canon Haffner, and that of Madrid for Mgr. Sandra Hervaz, translated from Avila ; the remaining fourteen sees being in France, Spain, Africa, and Mexico. His Holiness next notified the provision by brief of the metropolitan see of Posen ; of the cathedral sees of Ermeland ; of Down and Connor, of Limerick and of Kilmore ; of Savannah and of Green Bay, U.S.A. ; and of Panama ; and finally of ten titular episcopal sees for the Vicars Apostolic of Southern Tonquin, of the Congo, and of the Free State of Orange ; for the Coadjutors of Waterford, of the Western district of the Cape of Good Hope, of Ghent, and of  Angra ; and for the Auxiliaries of Lemberg, of the Latin Rite, and of Trigonia . Postulation of the sacred pallium was then made for the metropolitan sees of Toledo, Port au Prince, Compostello, Burgos, Sorrento, Aix, and Posen ; for the two churches of Montreal and of Ottawa recently raised to metropolitan rank, under their present titulars, Mgr. Edward Fabre and Mgr. Thomas Duhamel, and likewise for the cathedral see of  Ermeland, endowed with that privilege by Benedict XIV. The Pope then placed the cardinalitial ring upon the new Princes of the Church, assigning to Cardinal Neto the priestly title of the Holy Twelve Apostles ; to Cardinal Monescillo that of St. Augustine ; to Cardinal Ganglbauer, that of S. Eusebius ; to Cardinal Theodoli, the diaconal title of Sta. Maria della Scala ; and to Cardinal Mazzella the diaconate title of S. Adriano al Foro Romano. Finally, returning to his private apartments, his Holiness received the new Cardinals in collective audience.

SACRED CONGREGATIONS.

The Pope has assigned to Cardinal Neto, Patriarch of Lisbon, the Sacred Congregations of Propaganda, the Rites, Indulgences, and Holy Relics, and the Lauretana ; to Cardinal Monescillo, Archbishop of Valencia, those of the Council, Index, Studies, and Regular Discipline ; to Cardinal Ganglbauer, Archbishop of Vienna, those of Bishops and Regulars, Rites, Studies, and Ceremonial ; to Cardinal Theodoli those of the Council, Rites, Ceremonial, and Fabrica of St. Peter ; and to Cardinal Mazzella those of Propaganda, Index, Studies, and Indulgences, and Holy Relics.

THE NEW CARDINALS.

gregorian-university-atrium
Gregorian University Rome

On Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, the five Cardinals in Curia, of those created in the Consistory of the 7th inst., received the visits of felicitation, in di calore, as it is termed. Cardinal Ganglbauer, at the Palace of Venice, the seat of the Austrian Embassy to the Holy See ; the Cardinal Archbishop of Valencia, at the Spanish Embassy to the Vatican ; the Cardinal Patriarch of Lisbon, at the National Portuguese Establishment attached to the Church of S. Antonio dei Portoghesi ; Cardinal Theodoli, in the apartments of the Majordomo of the Papal Palace ; and Cardinal Mazzella, in the Grand Aula of the Gregorian University.

It is stated that the last-named Prince of the Church, in company with Cardinals Melchers, Hergenroether, and Ledochowski, will later be furnished with suitable apartments in the new German Hungarian College, formerly the Hotel Costanzi. On Friday the two Ablegates, Mgr. Misciatelli and Mgr. Grassi-Landi, destined respectively to convey the Cardinalitial berretta to the Archbishops ot Sens and of Rennes, were received by the Holy Father in audience of conga, and with their secretaries left Rome last evening for Paris. The Ablegate for the Archbishop of Rheims is Mgr. Vico, Secretary of the Nunciature of Paris. It is said that the imposition of the berretta upon the three new Cardinals will take place at the Palace of the Elysee early in the coming week.

BALTIMORE AND QUEBEC.Mgr. Strainer and Count Muccioli, the  Ablegate and the Noble Guard appointed to convey the Cardinalitial berretta and zucchetta  to the Archbishop of Baltimore, quitted Rome on Monday evening in company with the Rev.Thomas S. Lee, Rector of Baltimore Cathedral, and were to sail yesterday from England in the Servia. The Holy Father has delegated the Venerable Archbishop of St. Louis, the doyen of the American episcopate, to impose the berretta upon Cardinal Gibbons, which ceremony will take place at Baltimore Cathedral on the 30th inst. His Holiness has delegated the Archbishop of Toronto to impose the red berretta on Cardinal Taschereau, the Ablegate, Mgr. Henry O’Bryen, leaves Rome en route for Quebec this evening. He will probably be likewise bearer of the pallium to the newly promoted Archbishops of Montreal and of Ottawa, which, with the pallium for the other metropolitan and episcopal sees enjoying that honour, duly postulated in the Consistory of June 10th, were imposed with customary formalities, on Friday,by Cardinal Mertel, Vice Chancellor of Holy Roman Church and First Cardinal Deacon, the Very Rev. Don Jules Captier, Procurator General of the Father of St. Sulpice, acting as Procurator for the Archbishops of Montreal and of Ottawa ; the Archbishops of Compostella and of Sorrento being the only prelates of the ten recently promised to receive the pallium, in person, as being present in curia. The Osservatore Romano of Friday published a telegram from Quebec, bearing the signatures of the President of the Council and of the President of the Assembly, addressed to the Cardinal Secretary of State, which informed his Eminence that on reception of the news of the elevation to the Cardinalate of the Archbishop of Quebec, both the Legislative Council and the Legislative Assembly of that city adjourned, in token of joy, and forthwith repaired in a body to present an address of felicitation to the new Prince of the Church ; which fact these officials begged might be made known to his Holiness.

umberto-1-in-1878
Umberto I – 1844 – 1900

OPENING OF PARLIAMENT. On Thursday, l0th inst., King Humbert of  Savoy [It’s quite an interesting description from the Tablet, – Umberto 1st had become King of Italy on January 9th 1878 on the death of Victor Emmanuale II, a month before Leo XIII became Pope. Describing him as King of Savoy was still not recognizing him as King of Italy sixteen years after the fall of Rome, and the unification of Italy. It does explain the tone of the report]  inaugurated with customary solemnities the sixteenth legislature of the Italian Parliament. The Royal speech was received, for the major part, in icy silence ; the largest modicum of applause greeting the paragraph referring to “the providential mission confided to the House of Savoy, to give life, liberty, and unity to Italy.”  Viewing the abject misery, the grinding taxation, the conscription, the ‘confusionismo’ to quote Signor Bonghi, which have fallen to the lot of Italy since it was raised to the rank of a kingdom, one is tempted to question the happy results arising from the said “mission,” and to wonder if the spoliation of the Vicar of Christ, the occupation of Rome, the progressive destruction of the Eternal City, the continued series of sacrilegious attack upon the church, upon religion, and upon the papacy, the peril to the faith and morals of the rising generation, thanks to the irreligious system of enforced public education and the unbridled license of an infidel and obscene press, fall likewise within the sphere of this ” providential mission.” Another feature of the royal address was the utter absence of the slightest allusion to the Divinity, which, for a nation claiming to be Catholic, was, to say the least, noticeable. However, as the Voce della Verita remarks, there being among the Commandments of the Decalogue—that the Name of the Lord shall not be taken in vain—the omission is rather deserving of commendation than otherwise.

Castel Sant' Angelo
Castel Sant’ Angelo

During the interval between the exit from, and the return of the Royal party to the Quirinal Palace, the cannon from Castle S. Angelo thundered forth the salute of one hundred guns, whilst in the Vatican Palace the Pope was holding the Public Consistory. A somewhat unpleasant incident marred the harmony of the proceedings : the German Ambassador to Italy being refused right of way by the troops, forced the cordon, and dashed up the Corso at full speed, regardless of consequences.—Commander Seoul, former Director-General of the Treasury and Councillor of the Exchequer, fell dead from apoplexy at his desk in that Bureau, on Tuesday evening, the 8th inst., three hours after the Gazzetta Officiate had published his name among the list of the forty new senators recently promoted to that dignity. The Government had annulled the election in two districts, by a large majority in each, of Amilcare Cipriani, one of the most active of the Communists of Paris in 1871, and who is now serving his term of twenty years in the galleys for a double homicide, perpetrated at Alexandria, Egypt, in 1867. During the term of the elections Fanfulla accused the Deputy Mussi of hearing Mass on days of obligation, and of being a member of a religious confraternity. The candidate to political honours, fearful of losing caste, hastened to deny the charge, by formally declaring that he never dreamed of attending Mass, &c.—The Senate of the kingdom are about to assemble in High Court of Justice, to judge the case of Senator Zini, author of a novel entitled La Famiglia Moscardini, a ” libello famoso ” against the late Deputy Bonchetti. Such are some of the individuals who make laws for the Kingdom of United Italy.

The above text was found on p.17, 12th June 1886  in “The Tablet: The International Catholic News Weekly.” Reproduced with kind permission of the Publisher. The Tablet can be found at http://www.thetablet.co.uk .

Dr O’Bryen’s Sermons 1880

Rome, February 22nd, 1880.

S. Andrea della Fratte , Rome

A person who signs himself an ” Anglo-Catholic” has written and circulated a letter  to the Rev. Dr. O’Bryen on the subject of the sermons preached by him in the Church of S. Andrea della Fratte on the two Sundays previous to Quinquagesima. “Anglo-Catholic” complains that Dr. O’Bryen “assumed that Henry VIII. of England was a Reformer, and that he constituted himself Head of the Church of that kingdom.”

“Anglo-Catholic” maintains that Henry VIII. “lived and died a member of Dr. O’Bryen’s communion,” and in proof of this assertion alleges the Act of Six Articles and the last will of the King in which money was left for masses for the repose of his soul. “Anglo-Catholic,” on parity of reasoning, may be also a Catholic, for he may attend mass and may bequeath, if he likes, any amount of money for the repose of his soul. The Catholic Church, however, will not admit the plea of “Anglo-Catholic,” and without submission to the See of Peter he can never become a Catholic, nor be acknowledged as such by Catholic priests or laymen.

The rest of “Anglo-Catholic’s “ letter is as silly as the beginning. He seems never to have read or understood the simplest Catechism, which would have taught him the Catholic doctrine of devotion to the B. Virgin and the Saints. And he is equally ignorant of ecclesiastical history. In fact “Anglo-Catholic” writes in the style of the vulgar controversialists, Messrs. Murphy and Maguire, and the other learned divines of Exeter Hall notoriety.

The above text was found on p.17, 28th February 1880 in “The Tablet: The International Catholic News Weekly.” Reproduced with kind permission of the Publisher. The Tablet can be found at http://www.thetablet.co.uk .

ST. PATRICK’S DAY IN ROME 1881

ST. PATRICK’S DAY IN ROME.

St Isidore's RomeThe Church of St. Isidore, the church of  the Irish Franciscans, was crowded on the  17th of March by a fashionable congregation of English-speaking visitors and residents assembled to hear High Mass and a sermon in honour of St. Patrick. The High Mass was pontificated by Mgr. Grasselli, Archbishop of Colosse in fiartibus, and the music was that of Palestrina, sung by the members of the Scuola Gregoriana. The sermon was preached by the Very Rev. Mgr.O’Bryen, lately nominated a Cameriere Segreto to his Holiness, and was listened to with marked attention. It, the sermon, was partly historical and political, and was a defence of the present position of Irish Catholics at home and abroad.

The above text was found on p.29, 26th March 1881 in “The Tablet: The International Catholic News Weekly.” Reproduced with kind permission of the Publisher. The Tablet can be found at http://www.thetablet.co.uk .